Author: Anthony Russano Last Edited: April 2nd 2019, 11:52:04 PM

Bacopa (Bacopa monnieri L.) is also known as thyme-leaved Gratiola or water hyssop.

Healing Properties

  • Adaptogenic Activity: (adaptogen)
    • High doses of standardized extract of B. monniera significantly reversed chronic stress-induced changes in ulcer index and adrenal gland weight.[1]
  • Anti-Cancer: Bacopaside II, an extract from the medicinal herb Bacopa monnieri. has promising anti-cancer activity for the treatment of colorectal and other cancers.[2]
    • Bacopaside II inhibits colon cancer cell growth by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.[2]
    • Bacopaside II inhibits migration of colon cancer cells. [2]
  • Antidepressant: Methanolic extract of B. monnieri given once daily for 5 days showed significant antidepressant activity.[1]
  • Cognition-Enhancing: (Nootropic) alcoholic extract of B. monnieri improves the performance in various learning situations.[1]
    • Several randomized, controlled human clinical trials have proved the cognition-enhancing and nootropic effects of Bacopa.[1]
    • Researchers have suggested that bacosides cause membrane dephosphorylation, with a conjoined increase in protein and RNA turnover in specific brain areas.
    • Treatment with the ethanolic extract of B. monnieri showed enhanced learning ability.
    • Bacosides enhance the protein kinase activity in the hippocampus which could be contributing factor to the nootropic activity.
    • Memory: B. monnieri decreases the rate of forgetting of newly acquired information.[1]
    • Chronic use of Bacopa has been shown to result in improved higher-order cognitive processes that are to an extreme degree dependent on learning and memory.[1]
    • Bacopa has strong potential for safely enhancing cognitive performance in ageing.[1]
    • Bacosides A and B have facilitatory effect on mental retention capacity as they tend to improve responses with positive and negative reinforcement.
  • Neuroprotective: B. monniera has been reported to have protective effect from phenytoin-induced cognitive deficit.[1]
    • Extract of B. monniera (40 mg/kg/day) prevents lipid accumulation and protein damage caused by aluminium intake.
    • Bacopa monnieri demonstrated neuroprotective activity on beta-amyloid-induced cell death.[1]

Disease / Symptom Treatment

  • Amnesia: Bacopa monniera extract demonstrated anti-amnesic effects.[1]
  • Anxiety: A daily dose of 12 g of Bacopa syrup showed significant improvements in anxiety concentration and memory in patients suffering from anxiety neurosis.[1]
  • Attention-Deficit Disorder: (ADD) Alcoholic extract of Bacopa, administered to children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, demonstrated significant improvement in the areas of sentence repetition, logical memory, and pair associative learning.[1]
  • Cancer: Bacopaside IIshows promising anti-cancer activity for the treatment of colorectal and other cancers.[2]
  • Depression:
  • Epilepsy: Bacoside A has been shown to ameliorate epilepsy-associated behavioural deficits.[1]
  • Morphine dependence: N-Butanolic extract of B. monnieri containing bacoside A (bacoside A3, bacopaside II and bacopasaponin C) has been shown to reduce morphine hyperactivity and the elevated striatal dopamine and serotonin turnover.[1]
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases: Extract of Bacopa monniera has been reported to improve cognition in old-age people and in patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases.[1]


  1. Title: Pharmacotherapeutic Potential of Natural Products in Neurological Disorders
    Author(s): Amritpal Singh SaroyaJaswinder Singh
    Institution(s): Herbal Consultant Mohali India; Department of Pharmacology Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Science Amritsar India
    Publication: Springer Nature Singapore
    Date: 20 June 2018
    Abstract: Natural Products have always played a pivotal role as sources for drug lead compounds. This book is aimed at providing inside purview of the scope of natural products (including herbal and marine) in the possible treatment of neurological disorders. The book explains pre-clinical neuropharmacological investigations done on herbs including Bacopa monnieri, Hypericum perforatum, Passiflora incarnata, Scutellaria baicalensis and Piper methysticum. It provides a comprehensive overview of the role of phytoconstituents like huperzine, curcumin, Salvinorin A, bioflavonoids, sulforaphane, tanshinone IIA, tetramethylpyrazine, tetrahydrocannabinol, and cannabidiol in the treatment of neurological disorders. The book provides a modern concept of herbal medications, neuropharmacology of marine bioactive products and Ayurvedic formulations, herbal drugs with abuse potential and neurotoxic mycotoxins.
    Link: Source

  2. Title: The Purified Extract from the Medicinal Plant Bacopa monnieri, Bacopaside II, Inhibits Growth of Colon Cancer Cells In Vitro by Inducing Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis
    Author(s): Eric Smith, Helen M. Palethorpe, Yoko Tomita, Jinxin V. Pei, Amanda R. Townsend, Timothy J. Price, Joanne P. Young, Andrea J. Yool, and Jennifer E. Hardingham
    Institution(s): Molecular Oncology, Basil Hetzel Institute, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville South SA 5011, Australia; Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5000, Australia; Medical Oncology, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville South SA 5011, Australia
    Publication: MDPI
    Date: 21 July 2018
    Abstract: Aquaporin-1 (AQP1), a transmembrane pore-forming molecule, facilitates the rapid movement of water and small solutes across cell membranes. We have previously shown that bacopaside II, an extract from the medicinal herb Bacopa monnieri, blocks the AQP1 water channel and impairs migration of cells that express AQP1. The aim of this study was to further elucidate the anti-tumour potential of bacopaside II in colon cancer cells. Expression of AQP1 in HT-29, SW480, SW620 and HCT116 was determined by quantitative PCR and western immunoblot. Cells were treated with bacopaside II, and morphology, growth, autophagy, cell cycle and apoptosis assessed by time-lapse microscopy, crystal violet, acridine orange, propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V/PI staining respectively. AQP1 expression was significantly higher in HT-29 than SW480, SW620 and HCT116. Bacopaside II significantly reduced growth at ≥20 μM for HT-29 and ≥15 μM for SW480, SW620 and HCT116. Inhibition of HT-29 at 20 μM was primarily mediated by G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, and at 30 μM by G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Inhibition of SW480, SW620 and HCT116 at ≥15 μM was mediated by G2/M arrest and apoptosis. These results are the first to show that bacopaside II inhibits colon cancer cell growth by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
    Link: Source