Author: Anthony Russano Last Edited: April 14th 2019, 6:12:40 PM

Chinese skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) also known as Baikal skullcap, is a species of flowering plant in the mint family.

Composition

  • Flavons (a type of flavonoid)
    • Baicalein is one of Chinese skullcap's active ingredients.
    • Baicalin
    • Wogonin

Healing Properties

  • Antiviral:
  • Anticancer:
  • Anti‑diarrheal:
  • Antimicrobial:
  • Antibacterial:
  • Oral Health:

Disease / Symptom Treatment

  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM):
  • Fever:
  • Diarrhea: Wogonin, an active ingredient in Chinese skullcap, was effective in inhibiting colonic motility, probably through the opening of KCa channels located in the smooth muscle apparatus. These findings suggest that wogonin may be a candidate drug for the management of dysmotility‑related diarrhea.[1]
  • Periodontal infections: (Periodontopathic Bacteria) Chinese Skullcap was shown to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacterium associated with Gingivitis, Periodontitis, Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, localized aggressive periodontitis, severe infection of the periodontium, and chronic periodontitis.[2]
  • Ulcerative colitis: A polysaccharide isolated from Chinese Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) has been shown to ameliorate colitis.[3]
    • Oral administration of the chinese skullcap polysaccharide significantly decreased the colitis disease activity index.[3]
    • The chinese skullcap polysaccharide ameliorated colonic pathological damage.[3]
    • The polysaccharide markedly suppressed the proinflammatory cytokines in the serum and colon.[3]
    • The SP1-1 polysaccharide isolated from chinese skullcap has been recommended as a novel drug candidate in the treatment of colitis.[3]

Sources:

  1. Study Type: Animal Study
    Title: Anti‑diarrheal effect of Scutellaria baicalensis is associated with suppression of smooth muscle in the rat colon
    Author(s): Hyun Ju Kim Jun‑Ho La Hee Man Kim Il‑Suk Yang Tae Sik Sung
    Institution(s): Department of Veterinary Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea, Department of Neuroscience, Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju 26426, Republic of Korea, Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557‑0357, USA
    Publication: Spandidos Publications - Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
    Date: April 2019
    Abstract: Scutellaria baicalensis (S. baicalensis) has been used to manage diarrhea, and its anti‑inflammatory effects are responsible for anti‑diarrheal effects. However, there are no data concerning its direct effect on colonic motility. Therefore, the effects of the major components of S. baicalensis (baicalin, baicalein and wogonin) on colonic motility were investigated. A segment of the distal colon of rats was placed in Krebs solution to monitor spontaneous giant contractions (GCs). Changes in GCs were recorded after applying baicalin, baicalein or wogonin. After pretreatment with Nω‑nitro‑L‑arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L‑NAME), 1H‑(1,2,4)‑oxadiazolo (4,2‑a) quinoxalin‑1‑one (ODQ), tetradotoxin, w‑conotoxin, apamin, and iberiotoxin, changes in GCs by wogonin were recorded and analyzed. The segment of the distal colon showed spontaneous GCs at a mean amplitude of 3.7±0.3 g with a frequency of 0.8±0.1/min. Baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin reduced both the amplitude and the frequency of GCs in a dose‑dependent manner. Wogonin had the most potent inhibitory effect on GCs (IC50 was 14.6 µM in amplitude and 14.2 µM in frequency). Wogonin‑induced GC reduction was not significantly affected by the inhibition of nitric oxide/cGMP pathways with L‑NAME and ODQ. Blocking the enteric neurotransmission with tetradotoxin and ω‑conotoxin was ineffective on the wogonin‑induced reduction of GCs. Ca2+‑activated K+ (KCa) channel blockers (apamin and iberiotoxin) significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of wogonin on GCs (P<0.01). Wogonin was effective in inhibiting colonic motility, probably through the opening of KCa channels located in the smooth muscle apparatus. These findings suggest that wogonin may be a candidate drug for the management of dysmotility‑related diarrhea.
    Link: Source
    Citations:

  2. Study Type: In Vitro
    Title: Antimicrobial Effect of Natural Plant Extracts against Periodontopathic Bacteria
    Author(s): Lee, Seung-Hee;Kim, Min-Jeong
    Institution(s): n/a
    Publication: The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
    Date: January 2019
    Abstract: In this study, we examined the antimicroboal effect against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Prevotella intermedia which were the bacteria causing the Periodontopathic by using 34 types of natural plant extracts. Therefore, this study measures growth inhibition activity and Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) of a sample extract with the use of organic solvent extracts in order to analyze the antibacterial effect of natural plant extracts on periodontopathic bacteria. Each of the 34 types of natural plant extracts were extracted by using the ethanol, and subsequently, the size of growth inhibition zone(clear zone, ㎜) of respective extracts were measured through the disk diffusion method. As a result, it was found that the growth inhibitory activity was found for A. actinomycetemcomitans, which is the bacteria causing the Periodontitis, in 13 types of natural plant extracts such as Raphanus sativus, Akebia quinata, Paeonia lactiflora, Belamcanda chinensis, Inula britannics, Houttuynia cordata, Forsythia saxatilis, Gentiana macrophylla, Melia azedarach, Scutellaria baicalensis, Coptis chinensis, Phellodendron amurense, Kalopanax Pictus, etc. In the case of P. intermedia, the growth inhibitory activity was found in 13 types of natural plant extracts such as Raphanus sativus, Angelica acutiloba, Akebia quinata, Belamcanda chinensis, Inula britannics, Houttuynia cordata, Cinnamomum cassia, Aster tataricus, Melia azedarach, Scutellaria baicalensis, Coptis chinensis, Phellodendron amurense, Kalopanax Pictus etc. For A. actinomycetemcomitans, anti-bacterial effect was exhibited in Belamcanda chinensis, Cinnamomum cassia, Kalopanax Pictus, Phellodendron amurense, Coptis chinensis. The Coptis chinensis showed the most excellent growth inhibitory activity in all organic solvent fragment, while P. intermedia showed the growth inhibitory activity in Belamcanda chinensis, Cinnamomum cassia, Meliaazedarach, Phellodendron amurense, and Coptis chinensis.
    Link: Source
    Citations:

  3. Study Type: Animal Study, Human Study: In Vitro
    Title: Polysaccharide from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi ameliorates colitis via suppressing NF-κB signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome activation
    Author(s): Li Cui, Wei Wang, Yi Luo, Qing Ning, Zhi Xia, Juan Chen, Liang Feng, Hua Wang, Jie Song, Xiaobin Tan, Wei Tan, Chengcheng Wang, Xiaobin Jia
    Institution(s): Affliated Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210028, Jiangsu, PR China; School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, Jiangsu, PR China
    Publication: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
    Date: March 2019
    Abstract: The purpose of the study was to extract, separate, purify and character Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi polysaccharides, and to further explore the potential mechanism on colitis. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi was extracted with water and precipitated with alcohol. The obtained crude polysaccharide was fractionated sequentially by DEAE-52 ion exchange column and Sephadex G-100 gel colum. Then, we obtain the purified fraction, named SP1-1. SP1-1 (4.56 × 105 Da) was mainly composed of mannose, ribose, glucuronic acid, glucose, xylose and arabinose with molar ratios of 2.14:3.61:1:2.86:5.98:36.39. FI-TR indicated SP1-1 had the characteristic absorption of polysaccharides with a pyranoid ring. SEM displayed honeycomb structure. Oral administration of SP1-1 significantly decreased disease activity index, ameliorated dextran sulfate sodium-induced colonic pathological damage, and reduced myeloperoxidase activity. Additionally, SP1-1 markedly suppressed the proinflammatory cytokines level, including IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α, in the serum and colon of DSS-induced mice and THP-1-derived macrophages. Furthermore, a decreased CD11b+ macrophage infiltration in colons and inactivation of caspase-1 in peritoneal macrophages were detected in SP1-1-treated mice. The mechanisms responsible for these effects of SP1-1 were attributed to its inhibition on NF-κB signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. These findings support SP1-1 as a novel drug candidate in the treatment of colitis.
    Link: Source
    Citations: